From the nomination: 'Why do so many nation states struggle to accommodate minorities? Mahmood Mamdani argues in Neither Settler Nor Native that the colonial “define and rule” attitude towards ethnic or religious minorities lives on in postcolonial states. Such politicisation of identity (you could even call it identity politics) often leads to extreme violence. Mamdani includes the US as a settler-colonial nation due to its treatment of Native Americans, who still do not have full constitutional protections. Some hope, Mamdani thinks, lies in the post-apartheid South African model.'