Ralph L. Holloway

Ralph L. Holloway

Research Interests

Research Concentrations

Evolution of Brain and Behavior, Comparative Primate Psychology and Aggression, Ethology, Stress Biology, Evolutionary Biology, Paleoneurology, The Nature of Culture, Hominid Paleontology, Neural Biological Variability, Sexual Dimorphism, Allometry


Asia, Europe; Indonesia, Kenya, South Africa


Holloway's current research is basically three-fold: (1) to study the brain endocasts of fossil hominids to better understand how the human brain evolved; (2) to continue studies on ape brain endocast morphology and variation as a comparative basis for (1); (3) to study modern human brain variation with regard to brain weight, brain organization, and sexual dimorphism.


University of California, Berkeley, PhD in Anthropology, 1964
University of New Mexico, BA in Geology and Engineering, 1959
Drexel Institute of Technology, Co-op Program in Metallurgical Engineering, 1956

2018. “On the Making of Endocasts: The New and the Old in Paleoneurology.” In Digital Endocasts: From Skulls to Brains, edited by Emiliano Bruner, Naomichi Ogihara, Hiroki C Tanabe. New York.

2017. “Brain Fossils: Endocasts.” In Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 

2015. “The Evolution of the Hominid Brain.” In Handbook of Paleoanthropology, 2nd ed., edited by Ian Tattersall and Winfried Henke, 1961-1987. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

2014. “Introduction: Paleoneurology, Resurgent!” In Human Paleoneurology, Volume 3, edited by Emiliano Bruner, 1-11. Basel: Springer International Publishing.

2011. Coauthor with J. E. Lewis, D. DeGusta, M. R. Meyer,  J. M. Monge, A.E. Mann. “The Mismeasure of Science: Stephen Jay Gould versus Samuel George Morton on Skulls and Bias.” PLOS Biology 9, no. 6: E1001971.

2008. “The Human Brain Evolving: a personal retrospective.” Annual Review Anthropology 37: 1–19.     

2004. Coauthor with M. S. Yuan and D. C. Broadfield. The Human Fossil Record: Brain Endocasts - The Paleoneurological Evidence, Volume 3. Hoboken: Wiley-Liss.

2003. Coauthor with D. C. Broadfield, M. S. Yuan. “Morphology and Histology of Chimpanzee Primary Visual Striate Cortex Indicate that Brain Reorganization Predated Brain Expansion in Early Hominid Evolution.” Anatomical Record 273A: 594-602.

1996. “Evolution of the human brain.” In Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution, edited by A. Lock and C. Peters, 74–116. New York: Oxford University Press.

1985. “The past, present, and future significance of the lunate sulcus in early hominid evolution.” In Hominid Evolution: Past, Present, and Future, edited by P. V. Tobias, 47–62. New York: A. R. Liss, Inc.

1981. “Culture, symbols, and human brain evolution: a synthesis.” Dialectical Anthropology 5: 287–›303.    

1982. Coauthor with D.G. Post. “The relativity of relative brain measures and hominid mosaic evolution.”  In Primate Brain Evolution: Methods and Concepts, edited by E. Armstrong and D. Falk, 57-76. New York: Plenum Publishing Co.

1979. “Brain size, allometry, and reorganization: toward a synthesis.” In Development and Evolution of Brain Size: Behavioral Implications, edited M. E. Hahn, C. Jensen, and B. C. Dudek, 59-88. New York: Academic Press.

1975. The Role of Human Social Behavior in the Evolution of the Brain. New York: The American Museum of Natural History. 

1974. Editor. Primate Aggression, Territoriality, and Xenophobia: A Comparative Perspective. New York: Academic Press.

Courses Taught

Selected Publications